Plants are diverse and can range from the simplest of algae to giant trees, but all plants share a universal life cycle. All plants go through stages of germination, growth, reproduction and senescence, regardless of the type.


The germination stage is when seeds come in contact with water and begin to grow. During this stage small plants will sprout, while large plants may release large amounts of pollen.


During the growth phase, plants take in necessary nutrients from the environment and photosynthesis begins. During this phase, plants may reach their full size and shape as well as storing energy for later use.


During reproduction, plants are able to make new generations, which are similar in composition but may be slightly different. This ensures the survival of the species, as the new generations may have traits that are beneficial in different environments.


The senescence stage is when the plants begin to die off and end their lifespans. This stage contributes to the cycle of life, as dead plants decompose and provide essential nutrients for new organisms.


    • All plants require water and nutrients to grow
    • All plants use photosynthesis to transform energy
    • All plants produce flowers and seeds for reproduction
    • All plants eventually die and decompose

No matter the size, shape or environment, all plants go through the same cycle of life, from germination and growth to reproduction and senescence. This cycle is essential for the survival of species and contributes to local ecosystems as organisms die off to give nutrients to other organisms.

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